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|ARDAS - THE PRAYER
|Ardaas', the prayer that
is usually recited at the end of a religious ceremony
with participants standing up concentrating on God with
folded hands, facing Guru Granth Sahib (most of Sikh religious
ceremonies happen in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib).
The text that follows describes the meaning of Ardaas
and explains all events stated in there.
|IK ONKAR WAHEGURU JI KI FATEH.
||God is one. The victory belongs
and 'Waheguru' are names of God. In Gurbaani,
God has been addressed by many names like
Ishwer, Allah, Parmatama, Prabhu, Ram,
Mohan and Gobind, but Satnam and Waheguru
are most commonly used.
|SRI BHAGAUTI JI SAHAI.
||The Great Eternal
Power to help us.
is the name of the 'Great Eternal Power'
(God). 'Sahai' means 'help'. We are starting
the prayer by asking 'the Great Eternal
Power to help us.'
|VAR SRI BHAGAUTI JI KI PATSHAI
||This Var, addressed to the Almighty
was written by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
is one of the types of poetry which is
usually sung in praise of martyrs. First
five lines are written as a poem and the
rest of the Ardaas is prose. This 'Var'
addressed to the Almighty was written
by Guru Gobind Singh Ji. 'Patshah' means
King, 'Patshai' is the adjective, 'Dasween'
|PRITHAM BHAGAUTI SIMAR KE GURU
NANAK LAIN DHIAE
||First of all after thinking
of the Great Eternal Power I put my mind
to Guru Nanak.
means first of all, 'simar' is reciting
repeatedly and 'dhiae' is to meditate
(think deeply). This line means that 'first
of all after thinking of the Great Eternal
Power I put my mind to Guru Nanak.' Guru
Nanak was the first Guru whose followers
were called 'Sikhs'. Sikh means a pupil,
a learner. Whenever anybody went to Guru
Nanak and listened and adhered to his
teachings, other people called him 'Guru
ka Sikh' (Sikh of the Guru).
|PHIR ANGAD GUR TE AMARDAS, RAMDASAE
||Then I pray to Guru Angad, Guru
Amardas and Guru Ramdas to look after me
Nanak Dev was succeeded by nine Gurus
whose names appear in Ardaas in order
of succession. Guru Angad Dev was second
, Guru Amardas was third and Guru Ramdas
was the fourth Guru. (Gur is short for
Guru). Guru Angad Dev compiled the Gurmukhi
script in which Sri Guru Granth Sahib
is written. Guru Amardas started the 'Langar'
(the community kitchen) where every hungry
person was fed irrespective of colour,
caste or creed. Everybody sat at the same
level and ate the same food, thus showing
that everyone is equal. Guru Ramdas laid
the foundation of Amritsar city where
later the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple)
was built by his son Guru Arjan Dev, the
|ARJAN HARGOBIND NOO SIMRAU SRI
||I will meditate on Guru Arjan
Dev, Guru Hargobind and Guru Har Rai
were the fifth, sixth and seventh Gurus
respectively. Besides building the Harmandir
Sahib (Golden Temple), Guru Arjan Dev
wrote and compiled Sri Guru Granth Sahib
in which the Gurbani, written by his four
predecessor Gurus and contemporary 'Baghats'
(religious teachers; saints) was arranged.
He was also the first Sikh martyr who
was tortured to death by one of the Emperor's
courtiers . Guru Hargobind taught the
Sikhs to be brave, to look after themselves
and to fight for their own rights, even
with the swords if need be. He wore two
swords, one of 'Miri' (the political)
and one of 'Piri' (the spiritual). He
fought a few battles with the Emperor's
army and won conclusively, which actually
won him the Emperor's friendship. Guru
Har Rai continued the good work of his
|SRI HARKRISHAN DHIAEY, JIS DITHE
SABH DUKH JAIE.
||I think of Guru Harkrishan,
on seeing his calm face all agonies disappear.
Harkrishan was the eighth Guru. He was
invited by Emperor Aurangzeb to see him.
But when Guru Harkishan reached Delhi,
there was an outbreak of small pox. Instead
of seeing the Emperor, he started looking
after the poor sick people. He himself
caught small pox infection and left for
heavenly abode while he was still in Delhi.
He was merely eight years old at that
|TEG BAHADAR SIMARIYE, GHAR NAO
NIDH AWAI DHAI. SABH THAIN HOI SAHAI.
||If you meditate on Guru Teg
Bahadar you will get the key for all the
riches. He will help you everywhere.
Bahader was the ninth Guru. He was the
second martyr Sikh Guru. He was beheaded
on Emperor Aurangzeb's orders when he
refused to accept Islam.
|DASWAN PATSHAH SRI GURU GOBIND
SINGH SAHIB JI, SABH THAIN HOI SAHAI.
||I request Guru Gobind Singh
Ji, the tenth Guru, to look after me everywhere.
Gobind Singh is also known as a 'SAINT-SOLDIER'.
He changed the Sikhs into 'KHALSA', which
means 'pure'. He also gave the name 'Singh'
(lion) to his followers. He sacrificed
all his family members for the sake of
sikh ideals. Before leaving this world
Guru Gobind Singh told the Sikhs to accept
Guru Granth Sahib as their Guru.
|DASAN PATSHAHIAN DI JOT SRI
GURU GRANTH SAHIB JI DE PATH DIDAR DA DHAYAN
DHAR KE BOLO JI 'WAHEGURU'.
||Meditate on the teaching of
SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB Ji which is the gospel
of all the ten Gurus, and say 'WAHEGURU'.
on the teaching of SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB
Ji which is the gospel of all the ten
Gurus, and say 'WAHEGURU'.' You will notice
that 'BOLO JI WAHEGURU' (say 'Waheguru')
is repeated many times during Ardaas,
always at the end of praise-worthy adjectives.
It is one of the ways to pay respect and
homage to whatever is said during that
passage in the prayer.
|PANJAN PIARIAN, CHOHAN SAHIBZADIAN,
CHALI MUKTIAN, HATHIAN, JAPIAN, TAPIAN,
JINHAN NAM JAPPIA, WAND CHHAKIA, DEG CHALAI,
TEG WAHI, DEKH KE UNDITH KEETA, TINNA PIARIAN
SACHIARIAN DI KAMAI DA DHIAN DHAR KE KHALSA
JI BOLO JI - 'WAHEGURU'.
||Think of the five chosen ones;
the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji; the
forty martyrs and all those who meditated
on God's name with strong faith and determination;
shared with everybody whatever they had;
participated in feeding the hungry; fought
for the community; forgave the wrong doers;
remember the great pieces of work done by
those lovely and truthful people and say
PIARE: The incidence of the 'Five
chosen ones' is one of the most important
happenings in the Sikh history. It was
during the harvest festival of Vaisakhi
(30th of March,1699); while the congregation
at Anandpur (a town in Punjab, India)
were enjoying the hymns; that Guru Gobind
Singh stood up, took his sword out and
said in a very loud voice, "I need the
head of a Sikh. Who is ready to offer
me his head?" Everybody was stunned, and
a deadly silence immediately fell all
around. One man named Daya Ram came forward,
bowed his head and said, "I offer my head."
He was taken into a tent which had already
been erected there. Nobody knew what was
happening inside. They heard a 'thud'
which came from inside the tent as if
a person had been beheaded. After a while
Guru Ji came out with the sword dripping
with blood and said, "I need another head".
This shocked even the most brave hearted
man. Many people started leaving the place.
But one brave man Dharam Das came forward
and said, "I offer my head". He was also
taken in. After a few more tense minutes
Guru Ji came out and demanded another
head. Three times the same thing was repeated
and every time one Sikh would come and
offer his head. The other three who came
were Himmant Rai, Mohkam Chand and Sahib
Chand . They went in the same tent one
after the other. People outside the tent
did not know what was happening inside.
The tension and anxiety hung thickly in
the air. The silence was so complete that
the dropping of a pin could have echoed
for miles around. Nobody dared to question
what was happening. Those who remained
watched in awe whilst the faint hearted
After a long wait, the flap of the tent
opened, Guru Ji came out, followed by
the Five Chosen Ones (PANJ PIARE - Panj
means five, Piare means loved ones). These
five were dressed in a uniform; they wore
a long shirt, a long sword on one side
and a neatly tied turban. Then Guru Ji
prepared Amrit (Holy water) by reciting
five 'Banis' of Nitnem (the hymns for
the morning prayer) while moving the 'Khanda'
(a double edged sword) in a bowl of water
in which sugar was mixed. Amrit was offered
to all the five. It was sprinkled in their
eyes (to make their spiritual vision clear),
in their hair (to make their thinking
clear) and given them to drink from the
same pot (ending the class and caste system).
Guru Ji stood in front of them and said
in a very loud voice, "From today all
of you are brothers, no one is higher
or lower and there will not be a caste
system amongst you. You are an army of
lions. Your name will be Singh (lion).
You will fight for the sake of truth.
You will always fight to help the poor.
You will have the courage that for the
sake of your ideals you would not be scared
to fight even a million people single
handed. You will believe only in One God
and will not worship any idols, deities
or ghosts. God will always look after
you. You will always keep five Ks, that
are Kes (uncut hair), Kangha (a personal
wooden comb, to keep the hair clean),
Karha (an iron bracelet on the wrist),
Kachha (the under pant), and Kirpan (the
sword). This uniform will keep you ready
for your mission. During a fight you will
fight with soldiers, you will not attack
if he is unarmed, if he is asleep, if
he is running away or if he throws his
arms. You belong to God. When you win
in battle, the honour of the victory will
also belong to God, not to an individual.
All women , except your wife, are either
your mothers or sisters or daughters.
You will never harm the women, children
or elderly people. You will have no relationship
with the women of your enemy. You will
not smoke nor will you consume intoxicating
drinks nor eat meat .
"I am your Guru and you are to obey me.
But now I will change my place. You are
my Guru. I would request you to offer
me this Amrit. From now onward, if ever,
five Sikhs order me to do anything, I
Guru Ji was given Amrit the same way as
the Panj Piare were given.
Then Guru Ji addressed the whole of the
congregation. "These five are the most
courageous people. I want all of you to
follow their example. Those who want to
abide by these rules can take Amrit and
join this army of true people -THE KHALSA.
I would also like to invite all women
to take Amrit. They will be called 'KAUR'
(meaning Princess).They too will play
an equal part in the Khalsa."
It is said that almost twenty thousand
people took Amrit that day.
CHAR SAHIBZADE : 'Char' means four,
'Sahibzade' means sons (usually belonging
to a respectable family.) Here, this refers
to the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh
Ji. They were Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh,
Zoraver Singh and Fateh Singh. When Guru
Gobind Singh Ji formed the Khalsa the
neighbouring kings were very unhappy and
jealous. They attacked Anandpur a few
times but were badly defeated by the Khalsa.
They told Emperor Aurangzeb that Gobind
Singh had made a very big army and was
planning to attack Delhi. They succeeded
in getting his army to attack Anandpur.
The army surrounded the city but the Sikhs
did not give in. More than a year passed
and at last the Mogul commander (on behalf
of the Emperor) suggested under oath that
if Guru Ji could leave Anandpur he would
be given a safe passage by which to go
and would not be followed or captured.
Inside the fort the Sikhs were also suffering
from sickness and hunger. The Sikhs urged
Guru Ji and all his family members (including
his mother Mata Gujri Ji), to leave Anandpur.
The entire army lesd by Guru Ji left Anandpur.
They had hardly gone out of the city when
the Emperor's army broke all their promises.
They attacked the Sikhs. The Sikhs were
forced to cross the river 'Sarsa' which
was flooded at that time. While crossing
the river the two elder sons Ajit Singh
and Jujhar Singh were with Guru Ji but
the younger ones Zoraver Singh and Fateh
Singh were separated and went in a different
direction along with their grand mother
and a cook (Gangu). Guru Ji had to take
shelter in a small fort at a village,
Chamkaur, along with a few Sikhs and his
two sons. The army had surrounded the
village and were desperately trying to
capture Guru Ji, dead or alive. The Sikhs
and Guru Ji decided to fight to the end.
The Sikhs would go in the formation of
three to five persons at one time and
fight. They would kill as many soldiers
as possible before laying down their own
lives. Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh also
got excited and wanted to go out and fight.
Guru Ji prepared them and blessed them
to meet their end bravely. They went out
in turn with a couple of older Sikhs and
fought bravely. Although they were very
young (17 and 15 years old), they did
not care to save themselves. Both died
Gangu betrayed Zoraver Singh and Fateh
Singh and handed them over to the men
of the Muslim Governor of Sarhand (a neighbouring
town). The governor tried to coax them
to convert to Islam, which they flatly
refused. They were neither enchanted by
the attractions of a royal living nor
scared by the tortures which were waiting
for them. They opted for the latter. They
were made to stand on a platform and a
wall was erected around them. When the
wall was shoulder high they were beheaded.
The news of their martyrdom was conveyed
to their grandmother. She prayed sitting
in the cold tower, where she was imprisoned,
When the news of his younger sons, age
9 and 7 years, and his mother reached
Guru Gobind Singh Ji, he sat in meditation,
prayed and thanked God saying, "Thank
God, I have returned to you what belonged
to you, the children have sacrificed themselves
for the sake of the nation."
CHALI MUKTE : When the Emperor's
army had surrounded Anandpur the condition
inside the fort started getting worse
after sometime, as the food supply dwindled.
Sikhs tried their best to eat less. Sometimes
they would attack the army to loot their
ration, but time took its toll. Some Sikhs
were more desperate than others. They
thought of leaving Guru Ji's army and
going home where they would work in their
fields and look after their families.
They went to Guru Ji and told their decision.
Guru Ji did not get cross with them, rather
he smiled and said, "I respect your decision
and it is your choice to stay or to leave.
If you have decided to leave I would like
it if you would write your names on a
piece of paper saying that I am not your
Guru and you are not my Sikhs." They did
it as soon as they could and escaped in
the darkness to avoid being captured.
When they reached home their families
were first surprised and then upset. They
were not expecting them so soon since
the battle was still continuing. When
they heard that their loved ones had deserted
Guru Ji, they were extremely annoyed.
No welcome home, no smiling faces and
no hospitality was offered. Instead a
very brave lady Mai Bhago suggested to
them that they should stay at home, look
after the children and work in the fields;
and that she would go in the battle field
along with a few women and fight in their
place. They were very ashamed and sorry
for what they had done, especially when
the news came that Guru Ji was forced
to leave Anandpur. They had learnt their
lesson. Under the leadership of Mai Bhago
forty of them decided to return to Guru
Ji and fight.
In the meantime while Emperor's army was
surrounding the village Chamkaur and was
trying to capture Guru Ji. Guru Ji had
lost both of his elder sons and many Sikhs.
Night fall came and the army stopped fighting
(as this was the unwritten law of battle
in those days). Inside the little fort
everybody knew that in the morning the
army would attack and kill or capture
them. The Sikhs suggested to Guru Ji that
he should leave in the dark of the night
and they would hold the fort for as long
as possible. Sikhs thought that by the
morning Guru Ji would have escaped to
the safety of the nearby forest. However,
Guru Ji refused to leave his Sikhs under
these circumstances. The Sikhs thought
of a plan. Five Sikhs stood in front of
Guru Ji, reminded him of the promise he
had made with 'Panj Piare', and 'ordered'
him to leave the fort. Thus Guru-ji had
no choice since he had promosed to follow
the orders of his 'Panj Piare'. Guru Ji
stood at the wall of the fort and shouted,
" I, Gobind Singh, the Guru of the Sikhs,
am leaving this fort. Capture me if you
dare." It was a very dark night. Although
the army tried to run in every direction
to catch Guru Ji, they could not find
him. In the morning the army commander
came to know that Guru Ji was going towards
a small village. They followed him.
It was in the nick of time that the forty
Sikhs under the command of Mai Bhago reached
Guru Ji. Guru Ji got control of a small
and the only source of water at that place.
These forty Sikhs fought bravely with
their swords and arrows, Guru Ji's arrows
also uprooted the army. The army was dying
not only due to injuries but also the
thirst in the extreme heat of mid-day.
They ran away without capturing Guru Ji.
But by this time many of the Sikhs were
dead and others were dying. Guru Ji walked
amongst his true followers. He sat with
every dead Sikh and blessed him. One of
them, named Mahan Singh, was taking his
last breath when Guru Ji saw him. He rushed
to the dying Sikh, cleaned his face and
said, "You are my beloved Sikh. I am very
impressed by your bravery, devotion and
sacrifice. You can ask for anything at
this time and I will try to get it for
you." A glow came into Mahan Singh's eyes
and then his eyes were filled with water.
He gathered all his strength, tried to
touch Guru Ji's feet and said, "Guru Ji,
I have only one request. Please, tear
up that piece of paper on which I, with
my other friends, wrote our names when
we deserted you. Just say that you have
forgiven us." Guru Ji smiled, put Mahan
Singh's head in his lap, took out the
paper and tore it . "I forgive you and
your brothers and I appreciate your courage
and bravery." Mahan Singh died peacefully
in Guru Ji's lap. These forty Sikh are
known as 'Chali Mukte - The forty who
attained salvation.' (Chali means forty).
There is a big Gurdwara at this place
called 'Mukatsar'. Sikhs celebrate the
occasion every year on the 14th of January
all over the world. It is known as 'Maghi
|JINHAN SINGHAN SINGHANIAN
NE DHARAM HET SIS DITTE, BAND BAND KATAE,
KHOPRIAN LAHAIAN, CHARKHRIAN TE CHARHE,
AAREAN NAAL CHEERAI GAE, GURDWARIAN DI SEWA
LAI QURBANIAN KEETIAN, DHARAM NAHEEN HARIA,
SIKHI KESAN SWASAN NAAL NIBAHEE, TINNA DI
KAMAI DA DHIAN DHAR KE , KHALSA JI, BOLO
||Those Sikhs, both
men and women, who, for the sake of their
religion, offered their heads; let their
bodies be cut piece by piece; let their
heads be scalped off; suffered torture under
the body cutting wheel; let their body be
sawed through the middle; who sacrificed
themselves for the sake of the reformation
of the Gurdwaras; but they did not relinquish
their religion; who stuck to the principles
of 'Sikhi' up to their last breath, think
of their heroic performance and say 'WAHEGURU'.
HET SIS DITTE: (Offered their heads).
There have been many brave Sikhs who were
beheaded for the sake of their principles.
After Guru Gobind Singh Ji left this world,
Baba Banda Singh Bahader (who was assigned
as commander by Guru Ji) lead the Sikhs
for a few years. He revenged the torture
and assassination of Guru Ji's younger
sons, killed the governor of Sarhand and
destroyed the city. He started Sikh rule
which lasted for a very short time. But
unfortunately, he was captured with a
handful of Sikhs. To make up a good number
of the spoil the army caught a few hundred
civilian Sikhs as well. They were presented
to the governor. He ordered them to be
killed in front of Banda Bahader, who
was put in a cage. Every day one hundred
Sikhs were beheaded in an open slaughter
house. They were given one last chance
to save themselves, by converting to Islam.
Strangely nobody took this offer.
One of the prisoners was a boy in his
mid teens, whose father had died. His
poor widowed mother approached the governor
to spare his life because he was innocent,
because she was dependent on him and also
that he was not a Sikh. The governor took
pity on her and gave the order for his
release. He was going to be beheaded when
the order came through. His mother cried
with joy that her son would live. The
boy was given the good news, but he refused
to accept his release, even refused to
recognise his mother and preferred to
be killed as a brave Sikh than to live
a life of a coward.
BAND KATTAE: (chopped at every joint)
Bhai Mani Singh will always be remembered
as the man who was tortured to death by
being cut at every joint. He was one of
the most literate Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh
Ji dictated to him the whole of Guru Granth
Sahib, also incorporating the hymns written
by his father, Guru Teg Bahader Ji. When
Guru Ji left Punjab to go to South India
(Nander in Maharastra), Bhai Mani Singh
was sent to the Harmandir Sahib (Golden
Temple) Amritsar, as the head priest.
He looked after the general affairs of
the Sikh community and had a relatively
better relationship with the authorities.
One year he asked the authorities if he
could organise the Diwali fair without
any intervention from them. It was agreed
for a fixed amount of money to be paid
after the fair. All the Sikh leaders,
who were hiding, were sent the invitations.
A few days before the fair Bhai Mani Singh
came to know the secret plot of the government,
which was to attack and kill all the Sikh
leaders who would come to attend the fair.
Immediately this new information was sent
out and the fair was cancelled. As a result
only a handful of people came and there
was not enough money raised to pay the
authorities. Bhai Ji was arrested. When
he told them the reason why the money
could not be paid, he was prosecuted in
the court and, of course, found guilty.
According to the Islamic law the punishment
was that he should be killed by chopping
him at each joint. He smiled at them.
When the executioner came to him, he asked
"Where are you going to start from?"
"Your wrist," answered the executioner
as he got hold of his forearm.
"You foolish illiterate man! Can't you
see any joint before my wrist? Start with
the small joints of the fingers before
you come to the wrist. Keep chopping as
ordered and if I fall unconscious don't
forget the small joints of my toes when
you start cutting my feet."
He was chopped joint by joint .
KHOPRIAN LAHAIAN: 'Khopri' is the scalp
where the hair grow; 'Lahaian' means 'let
it be removed'. ('Khoprian' is plural
and 'khopri' is singular). This particular
incident happened with Bhai Taru Singh
Ji. He was also caught during the reign
of terror and given the choice of either
to accept Islam or to be ready to die.
He accepted the latter. The punishment
was to cut his hair first. Unfortunately
when the barber tried, his scissors were
very blunt and did not cut at all. The
executioner could not wait, so he ordered
that Bhai Ji's scalp should be removed.
Bhai Ji stayed calm as the order was carried
out and he became a martyr in Sikh history.
CHARKHRIAN TE CHARE: This was a
very popular torture of that time. 'Charkhri'
was a device like a Catherine Wheel. The
person was mounted on one wheel, the other
wheel was covered with sharp knives or
nails. Both the wheels were rotated and
every time the person's body touched the
other wheel a part of his body was ripped.
There were many Sikhs who died on these
wheels but Shabeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh
will always be remembered. They were father
and son and were very well respected by
the commoners as well as the officials.
For quite a while they were a go between
for the government officials and the rebel
Sikhs. But a time came when they were
set up by a Qazi (the Islamic Judge) and
the authorities accepted his unfair verdict.
They were given a last chance to save
their lives by accepting Islam or die
on the 'charkhri', ('charkhri' is singular
and 'charkhrian' is plural). As expected
of the brave Sikhs of the day they preferred
the latter. Both of them laid down their
lives for the sake of the community.
AAREAN NAAL CHEERAI GAE: (cut with
a saw); These incidence happened to
Bhai Mati Das Ji and Bhai Dyala Ji. They
accompanied Guru Teg Bahadar Ji to Delhi
along with three more Sikhs, when he went
to see Emperor Aurangzeb. Pressure was
put on Guru Ji to convert to Islam otherwise
all the five Sikhs accompanying him would
be tortured painfully to death. Guru Ji
refused the conversion. All of them were
ready to prove their point that Sikhs
could die for the sake of their religion.
According to the 'Qazi' Bhai Mati Das
was to be sawed vertically through the
middle, Bhai Dyala was to be boiled to
death and Bhai Sati Das was to be burnt
alive. They preferred to die and expressed
only one last desire, 'Our faces should
be towards Guru Ji when we die.'
Later, Guru Ji was beheaded in an open
market (Chandni Chowk, Delhi) on the 11th
of November, 1675.
GURDWARIAN DI SEWA LAI QURBANIAN KEETIAN:
(sacrificed themselves for the sake of
Gurdwaras). These are relatively modern
era martyrs. During the third decade of
20th century (1920 onward), when India
was being ruled by the British Empire,
every Gurdwara was being run by one priest.
These priests became very greedy. They
would take all the money for themselves
and would not spend even a small amount
on the welfare of the community or Gurdwara.
Sikh intellectuals decided (the reformation
movement) that this 'priesthood' should
be abolished and all the Gurdwaras should
be controlled by an elected central committee.
The proposal was put to the government
and also to the priests. It was rejected
immediately by both. The Sikhs decided
to protest against it non-aggressively
and peacefully. The incidents at the three
Gurdwaras of Nankana Sahib, Jaito Ji and
Guru Ka Bagh (Punjab, India) are the most
well remembered for the clashes between
the non-violent Sikhs and the government.
At Nankana Sahib the Sikhs went calmly
and started reading Guru Granth Sahib.
They were shot at, pulled away by their
hair and one man called Lashman Singh
was hung upside down and set alight.
At Jaito Ji they were also shot at.
Sikhs would walk about twenty miles from
Amritsar to reach Guru Ka Bagh, where
the police would be waiting for them.
The police would start beating the Sikhs
mercilessly and then imprison them. They
were transported over long distances without
food or water. Once, while they were being
taken from Amritsar to Peshawer, the Sikhs
at Hasan Abdal (where the famous Gurdwara
Panja Sahib is situated) came to know
that the Sikhs in the train were hungry
and thirsty. They requested the station
master to stop the train and allow them
to feed the hungry Sikhs, but he could
not disobey the order of his superiors.
The Sikhs laid down on the track, insisting
that the train should be stopped or they
were prepared to die under the wheels
of the train. The train ran over the first
two Sikhs and then stopped. It was a big
triumph for Sikhs and their campaign of
nonviolence. At last the government had
to give in and agreed that all the Gurdwaras
would be run by a central committee.
|PANJAN TAKHTAN, SARBATT GURDWARIAN
DA DHIAN DHAR KE BOLO JI 'WAHEGURU'
||Think of the five supreme Gurdwaras
and all the other Gurdwaras and say 'Waheguru'.
means 'Throne.' Five Gurdwaras, in India,
are given a higher status (like a throne)
mainly from an administrative point of
view. These are Akal Takhat Sahib (Amritsar),
Kes Garh Sahib (Anandpur), Damdama Sahib
(Bhatinda), Patna Sahib (Bihar) and Hazoor
Sahib (Andhra Pardesh). Akal Takhat was
built by Guru Hargobind Ji, the sixth
Guru and since then has been used as the
central point for administration. It is
situated right in front of the Harmandir
Sahib (Golden Temple). Even now all the
'Hukamnamas' (the orders) are issued from
there after consultation with the other
|PRITHAMAE SARBATT KHALSA JI
KI ARDAS HAI JI SARBATT KHALSA JI KO WAHEGURU
WAHEGURU WAHEGURU CHIT AWAI, CHIT AWAN KA
SADKA SARAB SUKH HOVEY; JAHAN JAHAN KHALSA
JI SAHIB TAHAN TAHAN RACHHIA RIAYAT, DEG
TEG FATEH, BIRDH KI PAIJ , PANTH KI JEET,
SRI SAHIB JI SAHAI, KHALSA JI KE BOL BALE
, BOLO JI 'WAHEGURU.'
||The first and foremost prayer
of the Khalsa is to remember 'Waheguru'
and through this, there should be peace
everywhere. Wherever there is Khalsa, may
God's grace be there. Khalsa should succeed
in feeding and in protecting the poor people,
Waheguru Ji, look after your people as your
graceful nature is, Khalsa should always
be successful, may the Eternal Power help
us; think of the high esteem of the Khalsa
and say 'Waheguru'.
this piece of Ardaas onward there are
requests to the Almighty to look after
the community, to be kind to whole of
the humanity, including the Khalsa. More
requests follow in the rest of the prayer.
|SIKHAN NOO SIKHI DAN, KES DAN,
REHAT DAN, BIBEK DAN, BHAROSA DAN, DANAN
SIR DAN NAAM DAN, SRI AMRITSAR JI DE DARSHAN
ISHNAN, CHOWKIAN JHANDE BUNGE, JUGO JUG
ATTAL, DHARAM KA JEKAR, BOLO JI 'WAHEGURU.'
||It is our request, Waheguru
Ji, that Sikhs should have your grace to
keep 'Sikhi', the hair, all the 'Rehats'
(the commandments given by Guru Gobind Singh
Ji; see Panj Piare, mentioned earlier),
high intelligence, trustworthiness, and
above all the supreme gift of remembering
Your Name; they may be given the pleasure
of visiting Amritsar. The chownki (see below),
your flags and the 'Bunge' (see below) may
always be there for your Sikhs, and and
let the 'Dharam' (virtues of the religion)
prevail; everybody should say 'Waheguru'.
little explanation may be needed regarding
the visit to Amritsar. In the old days
travelling was very difficult, but everybody
had a desire to see the Harmandir Sahib
(Golden Temple) and the city of Amritsar.
Only a few could do it; hence it was incorporated
as one of the requests.
'Chownki' (singular; 'chownkian' is plural)
is taken out in the Harmandir Sahib (Golden
Temple) five times everyday. About twenty
Sikhs go in two groups around the Harmandir
Sahib (Golden Temple) and Akal Takhat
singing hymns from Guru Granth Sahib.
'Jhanda' is the saffron flag of Khalsa;
'Bunge' are small rooms built around the
premises of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden
Temple) for the travellers to stay during
the visit; 'Jugo jug attal' means 'may
|SIKHAN DA MAN NEEVAN, MAT UCHEE,
MAT KA RAKHA AAP AKAL PURKH WAHEGURU. HAI
AKAL PURKH PANTH DE SADA SAHAI DATAR JIO,
SRI NANKANA SAHIB TE HORE GURDWARIAN GURDHAMAN
DE, JINHAN TON PANTH NOO WISHORIA GIA HAI,
KHULE DARSHAN DIDAR TE SEWA DA DAN KHALSA
JI NOO BAKHSHO. HAI NIMANIAN DE MAAN, NITANIAN
DE TAN, NIOTIAN DI OT, SACHE PITA WAHEGURU
AAP DE HAZOOR, '*************' BHUL CHUK
MAAF KARNI, SARBATT DE KARAJ RAAS KARNE,
SAEE PIARE MAEL JINHAN MILYAN TERA NAAM
||Sikhs should have humble minds
and high in intellect (thoughts); may God
take care of the intellect of the Sikhs.
Waheguru Ji, please give us the chance to
visit and look after the Gurdwaras, like
Nankana Sahib, from which we have been separated.
You always take care of the honour of those
who have no honour; You are the force of
those who have no force and You are the
support of those who have no support. Waheguru
Ji, at this time at Your service...... '************'
(here we mention the reason why this prayer
is being done; see below), please pardon
our mistakes, please help everybody to accomplish
their work (or mission), please help us
meet those devotees who talk only about
is a special request in this part. India
was divided into India and Pakistan in
1947. Many of the Gurdwaras like Nankana
Sahib (The birth place of Guru Nanak)
are in Pakistan. Sikhs always request
to God for creation of a peaceful environment
that Sikhs may be able to visit and look
after these places without any restriction.
'********' - In this portion of
Ardaas the main request is about the reason
for the congregation gathering together,
for example whether it is a marriage,
an engagement, a birthday, the birth of
a new baby, the death of a person, the
taking or passing of an examination, the
start of a new business, buying a new
house, starting on a journey (including
going into battle), or just giving thanks
in a prayer at the end of a normal 'Kirtan'
or 'Path' (the list is endless).
This portion can be as long as the individual
priest wants or is used to. The requests
can be more than one and may take several
minutes. Generally they are regarding
the welfare of the community and the whole
of the world and can vary a lot depending
on the place and the circumstances.
It is customary that during the recitation
of Ardaas one person touches the 'Parshad'
(the sweet semolina pudding which is distributed
to the congregation at the end) and the
'Langar' (the food) with a small sword.
This custom is intended to give a sacrad
touch to 'Parshad' and 'Langar'.
|NANAK NAM CHARDI KALA, TERE
BHANE SARBATT DA BHALA.
||Nanak says, 'Oh God, under Your
Name let everybody prosper and everybody
should have your Grace'.
is the best way to end a prayer. The prayer
may be done for any purpose or request,
it always ends in the same hymn.
|WAHEGURU JI KA KHALSA WAHEGURU
JI KI FATEH.
||Khalsa belongs to God, the victory
also belongs to God.
|BOLE SO NIHAL, SAT SRI AKAL.
||He who speaks God's name, may
have God's grace. The truth is supreme and